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MALARIA

1. What is Malaria ?

        Malaria is a parasitic disease caused by the Genus Plasmodium and spread by Anopheles mosquitoes.

2 .What are the symptoms of Malaria ?

        Fever, Headache, Bodyache, Rigor, Chill and Vomiting.

3 .How does malaria spread ?

        Malaria is spread by an infected female anopheles mosquito which breeds in fresh water collections like OHTs, cisterns, wells, sumps etc. There is no direct transmission from the infected person to the healthy person.

4. Is there different type of malaria ?

        Yes.There are 4 types of malaria namely Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium malaria and Plasmodium ovale.

5. Do all these are prevalent in Tamil Nadu ?

        No. P. vivax and P. falciparum are prevalent in Tamil Nadu and P. vivax Malaria is more common.

6. What are the different types of vector mosquitoes ?

        There are 3 different types of vector mosquitoes. Anopheles stephensi, Urban vector; An.culicifacies, Rural vector; An. fluviatilis, Foot hill area vector.

7. How to eliminate the breeding of mosquitoes?

        Proper sealing of Over Head Tanks, wells and covering all water containers preventing mosquitoes from laying eggs and thereby preventing the mosquito breeding.

8. Will Malaria cause death ?

        Untreated P. falciparum may cause severe complications leading to death.

9. Is there a vaccine for Malaria ?

         No.

10. How does a person know that he is suffering from malaria ?

        Any person having fever and headache should be suspected as a malaria case and his blood should be examined for confirming the same.

11. Is there any specific treatment for Malaria ?

        Yes. After examining the blood-smear, if the person is found positive for malaria, radical treatment with Chloroquine and Primaquine should be administered as per the malaria drug schedule of National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme, Delhi.

MALARIA TREATMENT SCHEDULE

(As per NVBDCP Drug Policy - 2013)

Age

Day 1

Day 2

Day 3

Day 4 - 14

Group

CQ

PQ

CQ

PQ

CQ

PQ

Primaquine 2.5 mg

 (Years)

(250 mg)

(2.5 mg)

(250 mg)

(2.5 mg)

(250 mg)

(2.5 mg)

0 - 1 Year

1/2
(75 mg)

0

1/2
 (75 mg)

0

1/4
 (37.5 mg)

0

0

1 - 4 years

1
 (150 mg)

1

1
 (150 mg)

1

1/2
(75 mg)

1

1

5 - 8 Years

2
 (300 mg)

2

2
 (300 mg)

2

1
(150 mg)

2

2

9 - 14 Years

3
 (450 mg)

4

3
 (450 mg)

4

1 1/2
 (225 mg)

4

4

15 & Above

4
 (600 mg)

6

4
 (600 mg)

6

2
 (300 mg)

6

6

Pregnancy

4
 (600 mg)

0

4
(600 mg)

0

2
(300 mg)

0

0

               

Dosage Chart for Treatment of P.vivax Malaria

{CQ - Chloroquine, PQ - Primaquine

Note: Chloroquine 250 mg tablet is having 150 mg base.

         Do not give primaquine to pregnant woman, infants and G6PD deficiency cases.

         14 days regimen of Radical Treatment should be given under supervision

Dosage Chart for Treatment of P.falciparum Malaria with ACT-SP

{Artesunate (AS), Sulfadoxine Pyremethamine (SP)} & Primaquine (PQ)

Age Day 1 Day 2 Day 3
Group AS SP AS PQ AS
 (Years)
0 - 1 Year 1 (25 mg) 1 (250 + 12.5 mg) 1 (25 mg) Nil 1 (25 mg)
1 - 4 years 1 (50 mg) 1 (500 + 25 mg each) 1  (50 mg) 1 (7.5 mg base) 1 (50 mg)
5 - 8 Years 1 (100 mg) 1 (750 + 37.5 mg each) 1  (100 mg) 2 (7.5 mg base each) 1 (100 mg)
9 - 14 Years 1 (150 mg) 2 (500 + 25 mg each) 1  (150 mg) 4 (7.5 mg base each) 1 (150 mg)
15 & Above 1 (200 mg) 2 (750 + 37.5 mg each) 1  (200 mg) 6 (7.5 mg base each) 1 (200 mg)

Note: Do not give primaquine to pregnant woman, infants and G6PD deficiency cases 3 days regimen of Radical Treatment should be given under supervision Treatment of uncomplicated P.falciparum cases in pregnancy:

1st Trimester: Quinine salt 10 mg/kg 3 times daily for 7 days.

Quinine may induce hypoglycemis, pregnant woman should not start taking quinine on an empty stomach and should eat regularly, while on quininetreatment

2nd & 3rd Trimester: ACT as per dosage given above (without Primaquine).

Dosage Chart for Treatment of mixed (vivax & falciparum) Infection

Malaria with ACT-SP

Malaria with ACT-SP

Age

Day 1

Day 2

Day 3

Days
 4-14

Group

AS

SP

PQ
 (2.5 mg)

AS

PQ
 (2.5 mg)

AS

PQ
 (2.5 mg)

PQ
 (2.5 mg)

 (Years)

0 - 1 Year

 1/2

 1/2

0   

 1/2

0   

 1/2

0   

0   

1 - 4 years

1   

1   

1   

1   

1   

1   

1   

1   

5 - 8 Years

2   

1 1/2

2   

2   

2   

2   

2   

2   

9 - 14 Years

3   

2   

4   

3   

4   

3   

4   

4   

15 & Above

4   

3   

6   

4   

6   

4   

6   

6   

Note: Do not give primaquine to pregnant woman, infants and G6PD deficiency cases

        14 days regimen of Radical Treatment should be given under supervision

12. How to control malaria?

  • Early diagnosis of fever and taking complete radical treatment will prevent transmission of malaria parasites.
  • Larval source management by mosquito breeding source reduction and application of Temephos in breeding sources.
  • Anti-adult measures by spray operation in malaria problem areas
  • Intensified IEC activities.

Treatment for malaria is free in all Government Hospitals, Primary Health Centres and Malaria Clinics

MALARIA INCIDENCE RURAL AND URBAN AREAS OF TAMIL NADU 2010 - 2017

YEAR STATE CASES RURAL CASES CHENNAI CASES CHENNAI% OTHER UMS CASES OTHER UMS %
2010 17086 6031 9789 57.20 1266 12.90
2011 22171 6602 14927 67.30 642 4.30
2012 18869 7146 11090 58.80 633 3.40
2013 15081 5893 8537 56.60 651 4.30
2014 8729 3708 4669 53.50 352 4.00
2015 5587 2045 3338 59.75 204 3.60
2016 4340 1409 2743 62.40 224 5.20
2017 5449 1360 3895 71.5 194 3.6
2018 3758 806 2823 75.1 129 3.4
January 2019 87 35 48 55.2 4 4.6
February 2019 90 26 63 70.0 1 1.1
March 2019 94 41 48 51.1 5 5.3


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